The disease develops as a result of ezetimibe of the facial nerve root coming out of the brain stem. Recent studies have shown that, along with the typical localization of the irritation zone at the root exit site, a pathological effect on the nerve is possible throughout its central segment. The main etiological factors that cause an adverse effect on the facial nerve are.
Causes of hemifacial spasm Pathogenesis Classification Symptoms of hemifacial spasm Complications Diagnosis Treatment of hemifacial spasm Prognosis and prevention Prices for treatment. The tone of the facial muscles changes under the influence of efferent impulses going through two facial nerves, each of which is responsible for the innervation of the homolateral half of the face.
Irritant effects on the nerve trunk cause overexcitation of its fibers with increased efferent impulses, leading to spastic contraction of the corresponding muscles. In the pathogenesis of neurovascular conflict, arterial hypertension and progressive atherosclerosis, which cause thickening of zetia pills and the formation of tortuosity of blood vessels, play a special role.
Since the roots of several cranial nerves emerge from the trunk in the cerebellopontine region, the pathological processes of this localization can provoke irritation of two or more nerve trunks at the same time. As a result, hemifacial spasm is sometimes combined with the pathology of zetia online, trigeminal neuralgia. The division of facial hemispasm into two etiological forms has developed historically due to insufficient knowledge of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of pathology.
The introduction of neuroimaging diagnostic methods made it possible to identify the cause of ezetimibe form of the disease, but the division remained. According to the etiology, hemifacial spasm is classified into. Primary - due to neurovascular conflict. Previously, primary hemispasm was considered idiopathic (having no known cause). Secondary - caused by the compressive effect of a volumetric formation (aneurysms, tumors, lacunae), a demyelinating process.
Features of the clinical picture associated with the sequence of involvement in spasm of the muscles of the face formed the basis of the clinical classification. Clinically distinguished.
Typical HPS - spastic paroxysm begins with individual contractions of the circular muscle of the eye. characteristic of the primary form. Atypical HPS - a spasm occurs in the muscles of the cheek, spreads to the near-orbital region, forehead. Occurs in the secondary form.
In the classic (typical) version, a spastic attack starts with contractions of the muscle located around the eye. There are separate squinting of the eye, the frequency of which increases. Gradually, spastic contractions spread to all the muscles of one halfs faces.
Squinting becomes so frequent that the patient loses the ability to see with the affected eye. Atypical hemifacial paroxysm begins with the buccal muscles, then the spasm covers the muscles of the lips, periorbital zone and forehead. Muscle contractions are painless, occur suddenly.
A hemifacial attack is provoked by psycho-emotional stress, overwork. Unlike other hyperkinesias that disappear during sleep, hemifacial spasm can be observed in a sleeping patient. The symptom of Babinsky's synkinesis is considered pathognomonic. on the side of the lesion, the closure of the eyelids is accompanied by an elevation of the eyebrow, which is due to the simultaneous contraction of the circular muscle of the eye and the frontal muscle of the forehead.
The disease has a chronic course, accompanied by the gradual formation of moderate paresis of the facial muscles. In some cases HPS is combined with pathology of other cranial nerves. In 5% of patients, trigeminal neuralgia is noted, in 15% - hearing loss of varying severity, due to damage to the auditory root. Some patients complain of noise in the ear on the affected side, which occurs as a result of involvement in the spasm of the muscle that moves the auditory ossicles.